SOUL MEETS BODY
By Vasu Murti
some, talk about topics such as whether or not life emerged from
matter may appear far removed from day-to-day affairs, and thus
irrelevant to their own lives. Whether the discussions involve highly
reasonable ideas based on solid evidence or vague, unsubstantiated
hypotheses rooted in flimsy data and nurtured by scientific
prejudice, they seem like subject matter for scholars in ivory
because the answers to fundamental questions about the origin of life
determine how we view ourselves and our place in the universe, they
profoundly affect our sense of identity, our decisions, our feelings,
our relationships, our behavior -- in fact, they affect all aspects
of our life, including the goals of our whole secular society."
magazine, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1984, p. 30)
twin doctrines of karma and reincarnation as taught in the the
Eastern religions (Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism) provide a valid
theistic foundation for animal rights ethics, but are not yet
accepted in the secular arena.
by credible scientists into mind-body dualism and past-life studies
suggest it is a real possibility.
is more to the human mind than information processing. It is
consciousness itself that is the foundation of all experience, but no
one can describe it by numerical expression in the same way as
chemical reactions, the force of gravity, and other physical
just because it cannot be measured by quantitative means in no way
denies its existence -- consciousness can clearly be known by
experience: cogito ergo sum.
suggests a serious limitation of the mechanistic approach, namely,
that it can only describe behavior connected with consciousness but
not consciousness itself.
us consider a machine that when exposed to a red light would say, "I
see a red light." Such a machine could be built by connecting a
photocell with a red filter to an amplifier. When triggered, the
amplifier would turn on a tape recorder that plays back the message,
"I see a red light."
the machine declares that it "sees" a red light, no one in
his right mind would conclude that it is actually "seeing"
a tape recorder receives sound impulses but does not hear, and an
automobile moves but does not itself experience motion.
machines perform certain activities that could duplicate those of a
sentient being, all the actions of the machine are reducible to a
in the case of a sentient being, endowed with conscious awareness,
the physical description is inadequate to describe one's personal
Darwin's champion, Thomas Huxley, pointed out the irreducible nature
understand the main tenet of materialism to be that there is nothing
in the universe but matter and force: and that all the phenomena of
nature are explicable by deduction from the properties assignable to
these two primitive factors...
seems to me pretty plain that there is a third thing in the universe,
to wit, consciousness, which... I cannot see to be mater or force, or
any conceivable modification of either."
Laureate physicist Eugene Wigner similarly said:
are two kinds of reality or existence: the existence of my
consciousness and the reality or existence of everything else. The
latter reality is not absolute but only relative."
observed that external, measurable phenomena are known to him only by
virtue of his own consciousness, and thus his consciousness is, if
anything, more real than these phenomena.
extensive research in this area, Alan Gevins of EEG Systems
Laboratory in San Francisco concluded individual consciousness might
not as firm as some of my colleagues in the belief that the mind can
be reduced to a flow of electrons."
a percentage of the research on near death experiences (NDEs) is
unreliable, other work has been presented by individuals with
example, Dr. Michael Sabom, a cardiologist and professor at Emory
University Medical School was openly skeptical of NDEs but changed
his mind after investigating them.
on his extensive research and his thorough analysis of various
alternative explanations, Sabom arrived at the following question:
the mind which splits apart from the physical brain be, in essence,
the soul, which continues to exist after final bodily death,
according to some religious doctrines? As I see it, this is
the ultimate question that has been raised by reports of the NDE."
the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to
youth to old age, the
soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober
person is not bewildered by such a
which pervades the entire body you should know to be indestructible.
No one is able to destroy
that imperishable soul."
the soul there is never birth nor death. Nor, having once been,
does he ever cease to be. He
is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying, and primeval. He is
not slain when the body is slain."
a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly
accepts new material bodies,
giving up the old and useless ones."
chapter two, verses 13, 17, 20, and 22
of course, Lord Krishna Himself says to His disciple Arjuna, in
who restrains the senses of action but whose mind dwells on sense
objects certainly deludes himself and is called a pretender."
in reincarnation IS compatible with Western spirituality!
are many passages throughout the Old Testament which speak of death
with finality, and make no mention of an afterlife. "Dust thou
art, and unto dust shalt thou return," said the Lord to Adam and
Eve in Genesis 3:17. Humans lost a physical immortality, and
there is no mention of existence beyond the body.
49:12 says man is like the animals that perish. Psalm 103:15 says
man's days are like the grass or a flower of the field. Psalm 115:17
says, "The dead do not praise the Lord, nor any who go down into
silence." According to Psalm 143:3, those long dead "dwell
in darkness." The Book of Ecclesiastes (3:19-20) says men are
like beasts; "as one dieth, so dieth the other," that man
"hath no pre-eminence above a beast"; "all go into one
place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again." Job
(6:18) teaches that there is no existence after death; men "go
to nothing, and perish," and "he that goeth down to the
grave shall come up no more." (7:9)
thought, nonetheless, has found its way into Judaism. The
Pythagoreans, Neoplatonists, Hindus, Buddhists and Jains have all
forbidden animal slaughter at various times in human history because
of a belief in transmigration of souls and, consequently, the
equality of all living beings. The doctrine of reincarnation is
taught in the Kabbala, or mystical Judaic tradition, and was
used to advocate ethical vegetarianism in Sedeh Hermed -- a
huge, talmudic encyclopedia authored by Rabbi Hayyim Hezekiah Medini
Wheels of a Soul, Rabbi Phillip S. Berg, a renowned
contemporary Kabbalist, explains: "...the concept of
reincarnation is by no means exclusive to Judaism. The idea was
prevalent among Indians on the American continent; and in the Orient,
the teaching of reincarnation is widespread and influential. It is
the basis of most of the philosophical systems of India, where
hundreds of millions accept the truth of reincarnation the way we
accept the truth of gravity--as a great natural and inevitable law
that only a fool would question."
to Rabbi Jacob Shimmel: "We are reborn until we reach perfection
in following the Torah...In Hebrew, reincarnation is called gilgul,
and there is a whole section of the Kabbala entitled Sefer
HaGilgulim. This deals with details in regard to reincarnation.
remarkable figure from this mystical school of Jewish thought is
Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534-72). Born in Jerusalem, he became a brilliant
student, noted for his intelligence, logic and reasoning abilities.
By the age of 15, Luria had surpassed all the sages in Egypt in his
understanding of talmudic law.
a thirst for higher knowledge, he studied the Zohar and the
Kabbala. For seven years, he lived as an ascetic on the banks
of the Nile River; fasting often, seeing his wife only on the
Sabbath, and merely for brief conversation, if necessary. During this
time, he experienced many strange voices and ecstatic visions.
times, the prophet Elijah appeared to teach him the secrets of the
Torah. Luria later went to Safed (in Palestine) and became the
spiritual master of the community of mystics there. He taught that
the good souls in heaven could be brought down to inhabit human
saw spirits everywhere. He heard them whispering in the rushing water
of rivers, in the movement of trees, in the wind and in the songs of
birds. He could see the soul of a man leave the body at the time of
death. Intimate conversations were often held with the souls of past
figures in the Bible, the talmudic sages and numerous respected
disciples said he could perform exorcisms and miracles and speak the
language of animals. They wrote: "Luria could read faces, look
into the souls of men, recognize that souls migrated from body to
body. He could tell you what commandment a man had fulfilled and what
sins he had committed since youth."
reincarnationist thought compatible with Christianity? The first
books of the Bible speak of man as a physical being, formed from the
dust and then infused with a divine "breath of life." New
Testament writings, however, describe the individual as a spiritual
being, clothed in an earthly body of flesh.
New Testament distinguishes between the carnal and the spiritual. “It
is the Spirit that giveth the body life,” taught Jesus, “the
flesh profit nothing.” (John 6:63)
taught Jesus had both an earthly and a spiritual nature (Romans 1:3),
and referred to his own spiritual self. (Romans 1:9)
spirit is a prisoner to sin and the flesh in a body doomed to death.
(Romans 7:18-24) Christians are to behave in a spiritually, rather
than in a fleshly way. (Romans 8:4; 13:14; I Peter 2:11)
desires of the Spirit and those of the flesh are opposed to one
another. (Galatians 5:13,16-17)
have “crucified the flesh with its passions and desires;” they
“live by the Spirit” and are “directed by the Spirit.”
be carnally minded is to die. One must transcend one's lower, bodily
nature. (Rom. 8:5-14) Saving the spirit of an individual differs from
the destruction of the person’s flesh. (I Corinthians 5:5)
kingdom is not carnal, but spiritual:
and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, neither does the
perishable inherit the imperishable...For this perishable must put on
imperishability and this mortal must put on immortality.” (I
body is like a lump of clay. (Romans 9:21; II Corinthians 4:7) The
body decays, but the self is renewed in spiritual life. (II
body is a temporary tent in which the spirit resides; the spirits of
the faithful will soon be clothed in everlasting, heavenly bodies.
(II Corinthians 5:1-3)
spirit resides inside a body of flesh. (II Corinthians 10:3) To
identify with the body is to be absent from the Lord. (II Corinthians
wrote of being “caught up as far as the third heaven...whether in
the body or out of the body I do not know...” (II Corinthians
with Christ differs from remaining “in the body;” one’s self is
separate from the physical body. (Philippians 1:21-24)
are to set their sights on heavenly, not earthly things, and to put
to death their earthly nature. (Colossians 3:1-5)
flesh decays, but the word of God is eternal. (I Peter 2:23-25) To
love this world is to alienate oneself from God’s love, because the
passions of this world are temporary. (I John 2:15-17) This world
belongs to the devil (II Corinthians 4:4); this present world is evil
rewards each individual according to his deeds. (Romans 2:6) One
reaps what one sows. (II Corinthians 9:6; Galatians 6:7) Some souls
remain entangled in decaying flesh, while others turn to the Spirit.
one who sows for his own flesh will harvest ruin from his flesh;
while the one who sows for the Spirit will harvest eternal life from
the Spirit.” (Galatians 6:8)
kernel of spirit is placed in a body:
gives it a body as He plans, and to each seed its particular body.
All flesh is not the same; but one kind is human, another is animal,
another is fowl, and another fish.” (I Corinthians 15:38-39)
New Testament also distinguishes between earthly bodies and heavenly
are heavenly bodies and also earthly bodies; but the radiance of the
heavenly is one kind and that of the earthly is another kind.” (I
in the New Testament is not the Old Testament doctrine of the
reassembling of dust into living bodies, but rather, the clothing of
the spirit with a new body; the placing of a kernel of spirit into a
new body, from where its existence continues.
New Testament emphasizes the distinction between the soul and the
body, the clothing of the soul with a new body, and the eternal
nature of the soul and its relationship to God versus the temporary
nature of the flesh and the material world.
concepts can all be found in the doctrine of reincarnation.
the second century, Justin Martyr, in his Dialogue with Trypho,
taught that the soul inhabits more than one body in its earthly
even suggested that those who lead carnal lives and thus deprive
themselves of the capacity to serve God may be reborn as beasts.
earliest Christians who taught the pre-existence of the soul came to
be known as the "pre-existiani." Clement of Alexandria
wrote with interest about what he called metensomatosis.
have existed from the beginning," wrote Clement in his Stromata,
"for in the beginning was the Logos...Not for the first
time does (the Logos) show pity on us in our wanderings; he pitied us
from the beginning."
(185-254), was one of the fathers of the early Christian church, and
its most accomplished biblical scholar. His influence upon the early
church was second only to that of Augustine.
taught that God creates spirits, and all spirits are created equal.
All are endowed with free will. Some fall into sin, becoming demons,
or imprisoned in bodies. This process of growth or retardation is
human being, at the time of death, may become an angel or a demon.
Origen gave a highly allegorical interpretation of Genesis and the
Fall from paradise.
held that the various orders of living creatures in the world
corresponded to the varying degrees of perfection and imperfection.
of God's children are created free and equal, but received their
present condition "as rewards or punishments for the manner in
which they used their free will."
"as befits the degree of (the soul's) fall into evil, it is
clothed with the body of this or that irrational animal."
in the third century, he explained:
some inclination toward evil, certain souls...come into bodies, first
of men; then through their association with the irrational passions,
after the allotted span of human life, they are changed into beasts,
from which they sink to the level of...plants.
this condition they rise again through the same stages and are
restored to their heavenly place."
Principiis, Book III, Chapter 5)
to Origen, God sent forth Christ to bring about the redemption of all
souls; a salvation so universal, even the demons will be saved. "The
purified spirit will be brought home; it will no longer rebel; it
will acquiesce in its lot."
based his theology upon passages from Scripture. The prophet Elijah
lived in the 9th century B.C. Elijah never died, but was lifted up
into heaven. (II Kings 2:11) In the closing lines of the Old
Testament, Malachi recorded the prophecy: "Behold, I will send
you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful
day of the Lord." (Malachi 3:1, 4:5) Elijah would precede the
the disciples asked Jesus about the prophecy that Elijah must precede
the Messiah, Jesus replied, "Elijah will come indeed and will
restore all things. But I tell you that Elijah has already come and
they did not recognize him, but have done to him as they pleased."
The disciples then realized he was talking about John the Baptist.
even told the multitudes, "It is he (John) of whom it is
written, ‘Behold I send My messenger ahead of you, who will prepare
the road before you’...If you will accept it, this is Elijah
who was to come." (Matthew 11:10,14; Luke 7:27)
in Jesus’ day believed him to be the reincarnation of an Old
Testament prophet. In Matthew 16:13-14, when Jesus asked his
disciples, "Who do men say that I am?" they replied, "Some
say John the Baptist; others, Elijah; others, Jeremiah, or one of the
in Luke 9:18-19, when Jesus asked, "Who do the crowds say that I
am?" his disciples respond, "John the Baptist; but some say
Elijah, and others that one of the old prophets has risen again."
16:14-16 records King Herod saying of Jesus, "John the Baptist
is risen from the dead, and therefore these miracles are being done
by him." Others said, "He is Elijah," while still
others believed, "He is a prophet like one of the prophets of
one of the earliest of the Latin Fathers of the Christian Church,
vehemently attacked any and all reincarnationist interpretations of
Scripture. His attacks indicate the widespread influence of
reincarnationist thought upon Christianity at the time.
took the position that the above passages do not presuppose
reincarnation. Since Elijah was lifted into heaven (II Kings 2:11),
he never died. His appearance as John the Baptist was not
reincarnation, but a return visit. However the Gospel of Luke
(1:5-25,57-80) indicates that Elijah did not return to earth as a
mature man, but was miraculously reconceived and reborn as John the
remarked that the fact that the Jews specifically asked John the
Baptist if he was Elijah (John 1:21) indicated "that they
believed in metensomatosis, as a doctrine inherited from their
ancestors and therefore in no way in conflict with the secret
teachings of their masters."
the Fourth Gospel, Jesus and his disciples encounter a man who had
been blind from his birth. The disciples asked, "Rabbi, who
sinned, this man or his parents? Why was he born blind?"
reincarnation was a widespread belief during the time of Jesus, (as
were beliefs in apocalypses, judgement day, heaven, hell and
resurrection), one cannot help but wonder if the disciples had
reincarnation in mind. For if the man had been born blind, he could
not have committed the sin in his present life.
did not reject the notion of pre-existence as a solution to the
problem of evil. He merely replied that this man was afflicted so
that "the works of God should be displayed in him," and
that it was their duty to practice the works of a merciful God. (John
another occasion, Simon (Peter) said to Jesus, "Look, we have
given up everything and have followed you..."
replied: "I assure you, there is no one who has left home or
brothers or sisters or mothers or father or children or fields on
account of me and the gospel, but will receive a hundred times over
now in this age homes and brothers and sisters and mothers and
children and fields, along with persecutions; and in the world to
come, eternal life." (Matthew 19:27,29; Mark 10:28-31; Luke
hard to imagine these rewards—including hundreds of relatives,
parents and children—being fulfilled in one brief lifetime.
where to now St. Peter?
it's true I'm in your hands?
may not be a Christian
I've done all one man can
understand I'm on the road
all that was is gone
where to now St. Peter?
me which road I'm on
road I'm on..."
John, "Where to Now, St. Peter?" (1970)
the 3rd century, Chalcidius taught, "Souls who have failed to
unite themselves with God, are compelled by the law of destiny to
begin a new kind of life, entirely different from their former, until
they repent of their sins."
(A.D. 290) said, "We die many times, and often do we rise from
the dead." (Adversus Gentes)
Gregory of Nyssa (257-332) taught, "It is absolutely necessary
that the soul should be healed and purified, and if this does not
take place during its life on earth it must be accomplished in future
lives." (Great Catechism)
Jerome (340-420), wrote in Epistola ad Demetriadem, that "The
doctrine of transmigration has been secretly taught from ancient
times to small numbers of people, as a traditional truth which was
not to be divulged."
his Confessions, St. Augustine (354-430) prayed, "Say,
Lord to me...say, did my infancy succeed another age of mine that
died before it? Was it that which I spent within my mother's
womb?...and what before that life again, O God my joy, was I anywhere
or in any body?"
Bishop of Ptolemais (370-430), wrote in his Treatise On Dreams:
speaks of souls being prepared by a course of transmigrations... When
first it comes down to earth, it (the soul) embarks on this animal
spirit as on a boat, and through it is brought into contact with
soul which did not quickly return to the heavenly region from which
it was sent down to earth had to go through many lives of
belief in reincarnation was widespread in early Christianity,
orthodoxy prevailed. The doctrine of reincarnation never really
caught on, in part, because of the apocalyptic mood of the early
church. The Second Coming of Christ and the resurrection of the dead
were thought to be imminent.
the fourth century, Origen became an easy target for ecclesiastical
authorities seeking victory in power struggles with other theological
factions within the Christian church.
circumstances that to this day remain shrouded in mystery, the
Byzantine emperor Justinian in AD 553 banned the teachings of
pre-existence from what had by then become the Roman Catholic Church.
During that era, numerous Church writings were destroyed.
doctrine of reincarnation was forced underground, but persistently
appeared in sects such as the Cathari, the Paulicians, and the
Cathari (who were also vegetarian) taught that the reason we are on
earth in the first place is we are fallen souls forced to be
repeatedly incarcerated in bodies, and must seek salvation from
transmigrating from one body to another. The Cathari saw Christ
as the means of divine redemption from the wheel of death and
Geddes MacGregor, Professor of Philosophy and Religion, and author of
over twenty books, believes reincarnation is compatible with the
to Dr. MacGregor: "Reincarnation is, of course, a kind of
resurrection. Great importance was attached by Christian theologians,
however, to the notion of the resurrection of the 'same body' that we
now have, though in a glorified form.
so-called Athanasian Creed affirms that all men shall rise again with
their bodies...and a council held at the Lateran... asserted that all
shall rise again with their own bodies...
very Latin teaching about a carnis resurrectio does not seem
to fit Paul's teaching in the New Testament, which is that the body
is to be of a new order... not otherwise recognizable as the same
body as the one on earth.
curious notion of the revivification of the material particles of the
body does not arise in St. Paul."
MacGregor explains that conflicting theological and scriptural
accounts of the afterlife have caused many, including regular
churchgoers, not to concern themselves with such affairs.
Christian theologians have discouraged "idle speculation"
on the afterlife. Luther recognized the theological difficulties,
while Calvin, in a commentary on I Corinthians 13:12, questioned his
own doctrine of the eternality of the soul.
to Calvin, Paul intentionally gave no details on the subject, since
details "could not help our piety."
MacGregor suggests, however, that just as we have ceased to take
literally Archbishop Ussher's biblical concept of a 6,000 year old
universe, so also might reincarnation be consistent with a more
enlightened world view.
the Renaissance, a new flowering of public interest in reincarnation
emerged. One of the prominent figures in this revival was Italy's
leading philosopher and poet Giordano Bruno.
had entered the Dominican Order at the age of fifteen. As a scholar,
Bruno upheld the Copernican world view, that the Sun -- and not the
earth -- is the center of our cosmos, teaching that there are an
infinity of worlds and that many are inhabited.
had announced other worlds and Giordano Bruno spoke of other life
forms. Bruno believed there are no privileged reference frames for
viewing the universe; the universe looks essentially the same from
wherever one happens to view it. Bruno taught that at death the soul
passes out of one body and enters into another.
of his teachings, Bruno was ultimately brought before the
Inquisition. In his profession of faith before the Inquisition, Bruno
acknowledged that, speaking as a Catholic, he must say that the soul
at death goes directly to heaven, hell or purgatory.
Bruno insisted that as a philosopher who had given much thought to
the question, he found it reasonable that since the soul is different
from the body, yet is never found apart from the body, it passes from
one body to another, as Pythagoras had taught 2,000 years before.
his final answers to the charges brought against him, Bruno defiantly
responded that the soul "is not the body" and that "it
may be in one body or in another, and pass from body to body."
Bruno was eventually burned at the stake in Rome on February 17,
1600. His teachings influenced 17th century philosophers such as
Leibniz and Spinoza.
it occurred to you that transmigration is at once an explanation and
a justification of the evil of the world?" wrote W. Somerset
Maugham in The Razor's Edge.
the evils we suffer are the result of sins committed in our past
lives, we can bear them with resignation and hope that if in this one
we strive toward virtue our future lives will be less afflicted."
William Jones, a Christian missionary who helped introduce East
Indian philosophy to Europe in the 18th century, wrote:
am no Hindu, but I hold the doctrine of the Hindus concerning a
future state (reincarnation) to be incomparably more rational, more
pious, and more likely to deter men from vice than the horrid
opinions inculcated by Christians on punishment without end."
his monumental book, The Story of Christian Origins, secular
historian Dr. Martin A. Larson notes that according to Hindu,
Buddhist, and Pythagorean doctrine, "hell itself was actually a
kind of purgatory, since it was a place in which perhaps a majority
of all people underwent repeated refinement and punishment,"
before being reborn as a plant, animal, or human being.
the concept of eternal damnation, Dr. Geddes MacGregor concludes:
is no wonder that purgatory seemed by comparison, despite its
anguish, a demonstration of God's mercy. Purgatory is indeed a far
more intelligible concept, in the light of what the Bible says about
the nature of God. Even the crassest forms of purgatory suggest moral
and spiritual evolution.
too, even countless rebirths as a beggar lying in misery and filth on
the streets of Calcutta would be infinitely more reconcilable to the
Christian concept of God than is the traditional doctrine of
everlasting torture in hell.
appeal of reincarnationism to anyone nurtured on hell-fire sermons
and tracts is by no means difficult to understand."
Passavalli (1820-1897), a learned Roman Catholic archbishop accepted
the teaching of reincarnation from two disciples of the Polish seer
Passavalli admitted that reincarnation is not condemned by the
Church, and that it is not in conflict with any Catholic dogma.
Catholic priest who came to believe in reincarnation was Edward
Dunski, whose Letters were published in 1915.
other priests in Poland and Italy have believed in reincarnation,
influenced by the great mystic Andrzej Towianski (1799-1878).
her autobiography, A Servant of the Queen, Maude Gonne wrote
that when a priest asked her why she was not a Catholic, and she
replied, "Because I believe in reincarnation," she was
soul comes from God and returns to God when purified, when all things
will become clear; and who can tell the stages of its purification?
It may be possible that some souls work out their purification on
Reverend Alvin Hart, an Episcopal priest in New York, says, "In
the Second Letter of Peter, the word exitus ('exit' or 'a way
out') is used for 'dying.' The expression implies that something does
exist which at death goes away, or 'exits' the body.
would explain a great many things--such as just where the soul goes
after death. After all, it is unlikely that a merciful God would send
a sinner to 'hell' after just one birth into this...world...It takes
was also accepted by many philosophers in the early church. To my way
of thinking it is a logical explanation of what happens at the time
of death. Reincarnation is an acceptable answer."
doctrine of reincarnation first fell into disfavor in the early
church beginning with Augustine, who wrote: "Let these
Platonists stop threatening us with reincarnation as punishment for
our souls. Reincarnation is ridiculous. There is no such thing as a
return to this life for the punishment of souls..."
a result of this thinking, Western theology has been unable to
resolve the 'problem of evil.' Why does a merciful and omnipotent God
allow suffering and injustice? Why, for example, are some people born
handicapped, or into poverty, while others are born into wealth and
reincarnationist explanation is karma: we reap what we sow. We
are suffering and enjoying according to the deeds we committed in
innumerable previous lifetimes, and our deeds in this present
lifetime dictate our future -- in 8,400,000 different species of
Harold S. Kushner caused a theological controversy back in the early
1980s, with his book, When Bad Things Happen to Good People.
Kushner's solution to the 'problem of evil' is that God is not
omnipotent! There are limits to His power. God is just as outraged as
we are at the injustices in the world, but there's nothing He can do
to stop them.
millions of synagogue-and-church-and-mosque going Americans to take
up an Eastern religion, worship a long-haired, flute-playing, blue
God, and believe in karma and reincarnation may sound crazy
and radical, but we now find mainstream Americans doing something
even more radical: they are becoming worshipers of
Ron Pickarski, a vegan chef and Franciscan monk, said in an interview
in historian Rynn Berry's 1998 book, Food for the Gods:
Vegetarianism & the World's Religions, he believes
Christianity will one day embrace reincarnation and vegetarianism.
for scientific proof of reincarnation: research by credible
scientists into mind-body dualism suggests it is a real possibility.
These include the research on near-death experiences by Dr. Michael
Sabom, a cardiologist and professor at Emory University, and the past
life memory research of Dr. Ian Stevenson, Carlson professor of
psychiatry at the University of Virginia.